Contribution Of Vidal De La Blache And Jean Bruns To The Development Of French Ideology

✍️Contribution of Vidal de la Blush

        Vidal de la Blash is considered the founder of human geography. Blush obtained degrees in both history and geography from the Paris educational institution ‘Ecole Normale Superieure’ in 1865. He worked for some time as a teacher in the French School of Athens and returned to France in 1872 and received his doctorate degree. Blush was Professor of Geography at the University of Nancy, France from 1872 to 1877. From 1896 until his death in 1818, he was Professor of Geography at the Soban University in Paris. In 1891, he founded a commercial journal ‘Annals-de-Geographie’ for a class of geographical articles . La Blash in 1894 AD ‘Atlas General Vidal la Blache’Published the first edition of He remained devoted to geography in his life and continued to teach geography teachers for 26 years.

         Vidal de la Blasch was a staunch opponent and critic of environmental-determinism. He was greatly influenced by Ratzel and his second edition of Human Geography. Vidal de la Blasch proposed the idea of ​​possibleism, as propounded by Fabre. His basic notion about man and environment establishes nature and boundary, the two main tools of geography and presents possibilities for human habitation, but the way man reacts or adjusts to these conditions. Depends on his own traditional way of life.

         Vidal’s most important work ‘Human Geography’ was published after his death in 1921 AD because he died suddenly in 1918. The partial work of human geography was finalized by his son -in-law, Emmanuel-de-Martoni . Vidal-de-la Blasch began this book with the aims and objectives of human geography. In this, chapters have been included on regional unity and the idea of ​​man and environment, man as a geographical factor, patterns of civilizations, circulation, cultural regions and cities. The lesson plan of Vidal’s book explains the models on which he attempted to examine the interrelationships of the human environment.

✍️ Major texts of Vidal de la Blash

(1) The States and Nations of Europe, 1889

(2) Cartography of Europe, 1894

(3) Annual Booklet, 1891 (4) Annual Bibliography

(5) Geography of France, 1903

(6) Geography of Eastern France, 1917

(7) Principles of Human Geography

Vidal de la Blasch has presented the following 6 major concepts to place geography in the natural and human sciences-

(1) Geography shows the unity of the terrestrial scenes, that is, the physical factors are mutually dependent and interrelated with each other. 

(2) Earthly scenes are reflected in a variety of variable combinations and scrapes. As seen in the study of different types of climate of the world.

(3) Geography is concerned with all the facts found on the earth. It is the scientific study of places.

(4) It is necessary to understand and understand the various differences and effects of the forces of the environment, such as the vegetation belts on the earth and the adaptation of the human living in them.

(5) Scientific method should be adopted in the classification and interpretation of terrestrial scenes. (6) It is necessary to recognize the changes and modifications made by humans in their environment. 

✍️ Principle of terrestrial unity 

         Vidal-de-Blasch propounded the principle of terrestrial unity. According to him the idea of ​​terrestrial unity is important in all geographical development. The idea of ​​the earth as a whole, the parts of which are coordinated, where the facts follow a certain order and the general rules to which particular events are related, which formerly entered science through astronomy. In the words of Tallem, geography is “a supernatural science in which the image of the earth is seen in heaven.” But the concept of terrestrial unity was limited to the field of mathematics. This concept did not become part of the branch of geography until the time of Blush. In his view, the facts of human geography are related to the terrestrial unity, through which they can also be discussed, they are related to the environment at all places, which is itself the creation of a mixture of physical states.

        The idea of ​​terrestrial unity is derived from botanical geography where this term was first used as a concept of environment.

Alexander-von-Humboldt indicated with his vision how important the presence of vegetation is in determining the character of a landscape. The presence of vegetation is certainly an important feature of an area. Its absence is surprising. Vegetation not only gives importance to the landform, but the landform gives its slope, colour, a general characteristic. Strappy, savannah, selva, etc. are collective terminology that provide the idea of ​​this type of collective effect. The competition among plants is so active that only plants that adjust more to that environment can survive. In this way only the unstable equilibrium state is maintained. Adaptation refers to height, shape and stage of leaves, pubescent cover, fibrous filaments, Root disorder manifests itself in different ways. Not only is every plant necessary to carry out essential activities. He makes the best of what he can, but becomes an organization of different types of plants. So that he can benefit from the proximity of the other.

✍️ The regional concept of Vidal de la Blash 

          Blush has described geography as the scientific study of places. Emphasizing on regional studies, he said that it is necessary to clarify the effects of physical, historical, political and economic facts of a region under this. Blasch wrote ‘Geography of France’ giving impetus to regional studies . His most important work is the geographical study of small regions. He said that small areas of France called ‘Pay’ should be the basis of geographical study. Blush never considered regions as boundary walls and water tight compartments for any region.Not considered. They have not even considered the transition or interdependent area of ​​the adjacent regions of the regions. After discovering the interdependence of terrestrial events and factors in one region, they should be compared with others on the basis of such events and factors and contrast in other regions. In regional studies, the rural areas of France were called Pays which were deprived of industrialization and had a rustic nature in its original form. The tradition of small territories is still prevalent in France today. Thus Blush has described regional studies as the focal point of geography.

✍️ Vidal de la Blasch

         Blush was a possible geographer, he said that man himself is an active animal, who uses his environment on the basis of his own experience and level of development. He has written that nature presents possibilities and man can use them according to his capacity and need. He writes that “nature is nothing but counselor.”

        Blush pointed out that the relationship between nature and man is close, which has been going on since ancient times. They have influenced each other during this time period. On one hand man has learned to adapt with nature, on the other hand he has also made changes in nature according to his needs. Thus, in Blush, a clear glimpse of the coordinated thinking developed till the end.

✍️ Elements of Human Geography 

      Vidal-de-la-Blash has divided the study area of ​​human geography into the following three parts, in which the following are the facts of human geography included

(I) Population 

Under this the following facts have been included-

(1) Distribution and density of population

(2) Major population group

(3) Main means of subsistence of man

(4) Major causes of population growth

(5) Interrelationship between different types of population density

(II) Cultural Elements

(1) Adaptation made by human beings with various facts of the natural environment.

(2) Use of various tools and raw materials by man.

(3) Main means of subsistence of man. 

(4) Substances helpful in the construction of their dwelling sites by man.

(5) Rural and urban settlements created by man.

(6) The development of various civilizations of man from ancient times to modern times.

(III) Transport and excursions 

     Man himself was the main means of transport in ancient times. He used to travel his own journey on foot. Therefore, after that animals were used by humans as the main means of transport. At present, roads, rail transport, airplanes, sea ships etc. are the main means of transport and travel. 

In addition to these three main elements, Vidal de la Blasch has also included the following elements in the study of human geography-

(1) different human species

(2) Various cities (Evolution and development of cities)

✍️Contribution of Jeans Bruins

      Jeans Bruns was a disciple of Blush who worked to build human geography on a more solid ground. Jeans Bruns was particularly interested in human geography and settlement geography. In 1912, he was appointed to the position of Professor on the Research Chair for Human Geography at the College de France. After studying history and geography, he developed himself in the conceptual framework of human geography. According to the path shown by his teacher, he tried to explain the field and method of human geography. His famous book ‘ Geography Humane Assay-de-Classification Positive’ was published in the year 1910.

✍️ Jeans Bruins Creations

(1) Geographic Humane 1910, in three volumes

(2) La Geographic de la Historine, 1911

(3) Human Geography of France, 1920

(4) Political Economic Geography of France, 1926

(5) Translation of Isa Bouman’s book ‘New World’ into French language. 

   His important book is ‘Geographic Humane’ which was published in three volumes in 1910. It was amended after his death by his daughter, Madame Raymond Dilamaire. In the first section of this book, experiments have been discussed by humans in different forms of the earth. Description of building construction, type, location and shape of villages and cities. In the second section, man’s victory over the plant world and animal world and in the third section the mining work done by man has been described by giving the name of robbery economy.

>> Jeans Bruns has classified human geography into three classes and essential facts, which are as follows- 

(1) Essential facts of the first class – Unproductive use of soil, in this it has included houses and roads. Distinctions of houses, roads, human settlement, urban agglomeration, urban communication, alliances, urban morphology, general geography of communication are included.

(2) The essential facts of the second class – Mr. Buns has told the essential facts of the second class about the victory of man over the plant world and the animal world. In this he has included ‘agriculture and animal husbandry’. 

(3) The essential facts of the third class – Destructive use of soil, destruction of plants and animals and exploitation of minerals is prominent in this.

In addition to the above three classes, the Buns also included another class.

(4) In the fourth category, he has included the following facts

(i) Human Geography and Territorial Geography

(ii) Human species

(iii) Social Geography

(iv) Political and Historical Geography

     Apart from this, in his view that the above three classes, which are visible apart from the fourth class, do not determine the boundaries of the geographical regions. Beyond these facts, the geography of history i.e. distribution of population, production, transport, exchange and political societies (area, routes, boundaries, groups of states) are important components of the geographical region of social geography. All these physical and cultural components are necessary for the study of the region and it is necessary to consider them for making a detailed study of a region. In the method of geographical study, he described two principles (1) the principle of action, (2) the principle of interaction as important.

✍️ Jeans Bruns’ Principles of Geographical Studies

     Jeans Bruns has laid more emphasis on two principles in geographical studies. The details of which are given below:-

(1) Principle of action

    Jeans Bruns firmly believed that the physical and cultural scenes were in a constantly changing state and that they should be studied in the change of chronology rather than being studied as a constant in the time scale. He was of the view that everything is either increasing or decreasing, expanding or contracting and nothing is fixed and permanent. For example, the shape, size and height of mountain peaks, their heights, sea level, snow cover, glacial valleys keep on changing. Therefore, in order to understand the interrelationships between the physical and cultural components of the macro or small entity and to achieve a just synthesis, it is necessary to keep in mind the principle of activity.

(2) Principle of interaction 

     Jeans Bruns received the idea of ​​interaction from Vidal Le-la-Blach, who propounded the principle of ‘terrestrial unity’. relationship and their many combinations or permutations and combinations should be studied. The idea of ​​terrestrial unity or universality was the fundamental concept which later encouraged the idea of ​​regional synthesis. All physical human forces are closely related because of the states of endless interrelationships that they represent. In support of his theory of interaction, he examined the relationship between animals and cultivated plants and determined what type of land use, What kind of agriculture and what kind of economic organizations are these animals related to. In short, our efforts are based basically on the principle of great geographical interaction for humans like plants and animals.


  1. Herodotus’s contribution to geography
  2. The Geography of Eratosthenes
  3. Strabo’s contribution to geography
  4. Ptolemy’s contribution to geography
  5. Humboldt’s contribution to the development of geography
  6. Weber’s Industrial Location Model 
  7. Global Positioning System (GPS)
  8. south painting style 
  9. Basic Elements of Indian Federal System
  10. Fundamental Duties and Directive Principles of State Policy
  11. fundamental right
  12. federal system of india
  13. Salient Features of Indian Constitution
  14. Preamble | Preface

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